CHEMISTRY (Theory) CLASS XII
Time : 3 Hours, One Paper, Marks: 70
|Unit I||Solid State||4|
|Unit IV||Chemical kinetics||5|
|Unit V||Surface chemistry||4|
|Unit VI||General principles and processes of Isolation of Elements||3|
|Unit VII||p-Block Elements||8|
|Unit VIII||d- and f- Block Elements||5|
|Unit IX||Coordination Compounds||3|
|Unit X||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes||4|
|Unit XI||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers||4|
|Unit XII||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids||6|
|Unit XIII||Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen||4|
|Unit XVI||Chemistry in Everyday life||3|
Unit I: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit II: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of Boiling Point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Unit III: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit VII: p-Block Elements
Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds .of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only)
Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,
occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,
occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
General introduction ,electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy,
oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only)
Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.
Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules
Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins – Elementary idea of a – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins -Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA .
Unit XV: Polymers
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life:
- Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
- Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
- Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
|Evaluation Scheme for Examination||Marks|
|Content Based Experiment||4|
|Class record and viva||5|
- Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol.
Lyophilic sol – starch, egg albumin and gum
Lyophobic sol – aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.
- Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsions of different oils.
- Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
- Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
- Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions.
- Reaction between potassium iodate, KIO3 and sodium sulphite: (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
Any one of the following experiments
- Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
- Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HC1) and strong base (NaOH)
- Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform
Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+IICu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature.
- Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).
- Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
- Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.
- Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.
- Preparation of Organic Compounds
Preparation of any two of the following compounds
- Di-benzal acetone
- Aniline yellow or 2 – Napthol aniline dye.
- Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary) groups.
- Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs.
- Determination of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:
- Oxalic acid,
- Ferrous ammonium sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
- Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+
Anions – CO32-, S2-, SO3 2-, SO4 2-, NO2 –, NO3 –, Cl ‘, Br–, I–, PO4 3-; C2O4 2-, CH3COO’ (Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
A few suggested Projects.
- Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
- Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
- Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.
- Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature, concentration, time etc.) :
- Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and, effect of pH and temperature on it.
- Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice etc.
- Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).
- Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper.
Note: Any investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.