GEOGRAPHY Class XI
One Theory Paper, 3 Hours, 70 Marks
|Part A. Fundamentals of Physical Geography||35 (Marks)|
|Unit-1: Geography as a discipline||03|
|Unit-2: The Earth||05|
|Unit-5: Water (Oceans)||04|
|Unit-6: Life on the Earth||03|
|Unit-7: Map work||02|
|Part B. India- Physical Environment||35 (Marks)|
|Unit-10: Climate, vegetation and soil||10|
|Unit-11: Natural hazards and Disasters||09|
|Unit-12: Map Work||03|
|Part C. Practical Work 3 Hours||30 (Marks)|
|Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps||10|
|Unit-2: Topographic and Weather Maps||15|
|Unit-3 : Practical Record Book & Viva||05|
Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography
Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline
Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes; Branches of geography; importance of physical geography
Unit-2: The Earth
Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth; Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics; earthquakes and volcanoes.
Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics; Landforms and their evolution Geomorphic processes-weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil- formation
Unit 4: Climate
- Atmosphere- composition and structure; elements of weather and climate.
- Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperature factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.
- Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones.
- Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution.
- World climates-classification (Koeppen), greenhouse effect, global warming and climatic changes.
Unit 5: Water (Oceans)
- Hydrological Cycle.
- Oceans – distribution of temperature and salinity; movements of ocean water waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs.
Unit 6: Life on the Earth
- Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystem and ecological balance.
Unit 7: Map work on identification of features based on the above units on the outline political map of the world.
Part B. India – Physical Environment
Unit 8: Introduction
- Location-space relations and India’s place in the world.
Unit 9: Physiography
- Structure and Relief;
- Drainage systems: concept of watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular;
- Physiographic divisions.
Unit 10: Climate, Vegetation and Soil
- Weather and climate — spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls : spatial and temporal; Climatic types (koeppen)
- Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves;
- Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.
Unit 11: Natural Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management (One case study to be introduced for each topic)
- Floods and droughts
- Earthquakes and Tsunami
Unit 12: Map Work of features based on above units for locating and labelling on the Outline Political map of India.
Unit 1: Fundamentals of Maps
- Maps -types; scales-types; construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding direction and use of symbols.
- Latitude, longitude and time.
- Map projection- typology, construction and properties of projections : Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator’s projection.
Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps (28 Periods)
- Study of topographic maps (1 : 50,000 or 1 : 25,000 Survey of India maps); contour cross section and identification of land forms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution of settlements.
- Aerial Photographs: Types & Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps & aerial photographs; photo scale determination.
- Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform & sensors and data products, (photographic & digital).
- Identification of physical & cultural features from aerial photographs & satellite imageries.
- Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, wind vane, rain gauge.
- Use of weather charts: describing pressure, wind and rainfall distribution.
Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva-voce.