Class-11

Uttarakhand Board class 11 Geography Syllabus

GEOGRAPHY Class XI

One Theory Paper, 3  Hours, 70  Marks

Part A. Fundamentals of Physical Geography 35 (Marks)
Unit-1: Geography as a discipline 03
Unit-2: The Earth 05
Unit-3: Landforms 08
Unit-4: Climate 10
Unit-5: Water (Oceans) 04
Unit-6: Life on the Earth 03
Unit-7: Map work 02
Part B. India- Physical Environment 35 (Marks)
Unit-8: Introduction 03
Unit-9: Physiography 10
Unit-10: Climate, vegetation and soil 10
Unit-11: Natural hazards and Disasters 09
Unit-12: Map Work 03
Part C. Practical Work 3 Hours 30 (Marks)
Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps 10
Unit-2: Topographic and Weather Maps 15
Unit-3 : Practical Record Book & Viva 05

Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography

Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline

Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes; Branches of geography; importance of physical geography

Unit-2: The Earth

Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth; Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics; earthquakes and volcanoes.

Unit-3: Landforms

Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics; Landforms and their evolution Geomorphic processes-weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil- formation

Unit 4: Climate

  • Atmosphere- composition and structure; elements of weather and climate.
  • Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperature factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.
  • Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones.
  • Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution.
  • World climates-classification (Koeppen), greenhouse effect, global warming and climatic changes.

Unit 5: Water (Oceans)

  • Hydrological Cycle.
  • Oceans – distribution of temperature and salinity; movements of ocean water waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs.

Unit 6: Life on the Earth

  • Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystem and ecological balance.

Unit 7: Map work on identification of features based on the above units on the outline political map of the world.

Part B. India – Physical Environment

Unit 8: Introduction

  • Location-space relations and India’s place in the world.

Unit 9: Physiography

  • Structure and Relief;
  • Drainage systems: concept of watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular;
  • Physiographic divisions.

Unit 10: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

  • Weather and climate — spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls : spatial and temporal; Climatic types (koeppen)
  • Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves;
  • Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.

Unit 11: Natural Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management (One case study to be introduced for each topic)

  • Floods and droughts
  • Earthquakes and Tsunami
  • Cyclones
  • Landslides

Unit 12: Map Work of features based on above units for locating and labelling on the Outline Political map of India.

Practical Work

Unit 1: Fundamentals of Maps

  • Maps -types; scales-types; construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding direction and use of symbols.
  • Latitude, longitude and time.
  • Map projection- typology, construction and properties of projections : Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator’s projection.

Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps (28 Periods)

  • Study of topographic maps (1 : 50,000 or 1 : 25,000 Survey of India maps); contour cross section and identification of land forms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution of settlements.
  • Aerial Photographs: Types & Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps & aerial photographs; photo scale determination.
  • Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform & sensors and data products, (photographic & digital).
  • Identification of physical & cultural features from aerial photographs & satellite imageries.
  • Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, wind vane, rain gauge.
  • Use of weather charts: describing pressure, wind and rainfall distribution.

Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva-voce.